Europa #435 G-RODO Build Journal - 2008 01

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5 Get port flap, aileron and conduits out of trailer. Aileron weighs 2.495kg, (starboard was 2.505) flap 3.225kg (starboard 3.285). Add fine adjuster to beam balance for easier positioning of lead weight.
9 Start to mark out conduit hole positions then remember that the spar positions are different port & starboard. Compare length of aft root rib on starboard wing and it is indeed about 30mm shorter - or one spar thickness. Mark out conduit centres 180mm aft of spar rear face, and at half rib height, except for BL95.5 and BL97.5 which are 30mm above the bottom skin (to clear the aileron pushrod) and BL127 which is about 12mm aft of the spar at half-height. Check and mark ribs with butt line numbers for easy future reference. Spot through the marked hole centres so they won't get lost when degreasing and abrading. Need to use tight fit drill kit on BL29.5, on angled root rib, and on BL127. 872.3
10 In an effort to stop drips running back onto the nozzle of the W&N bottles I'm using to dispense Ampreg 20 into the beam balance cup, turn up a restrictor nozzle from 0.5" aluminium bar, with 5mm spigot to fit tightly into plastic nozzle. Drill it through 2mm. Taper the outer end at 40 degrees included angle almost down to the edge of the hole.
11 Try the restrictor on the hardener dispenser. It's slightly better than without it, but drips still tend to run back up it when the bottle is tilted back to stop the flow. The light comes on! I need a right-angle tube so that the drips have nowhere to go when the bottle is tilted below the horizontal. Get some 1/8" OD brass tube from Cheltenham Model Centre. Bore out the restrictor to fit the brass tube. Degrease everything, Loctite a short length of brass tube into the restrictor and bend it through about 80 degrees. Turn up a brass plug with a 5mm spigot and drill it to fit the brass tube.
12 Solder a piece of tube into the brass plug and bend similar to previous one. Try out both devices and they give good control with no tendency for unwanted drips. As hardener is probably more chemically aggressive, decide to reserve the all-brass one for that, and keep the Loctite-secured aluminium one for resin. Make a stand from a small scrap of aluminium extrusion to keep the nozzles on when not in use. Tidy table at north end of garage to make better room for using the beam balance there, sort out the plastic mixing cups, and archive some resin samples.
15 Phone the number shown on the Garmin website for Apollo aircraft radios. The person says the current software version is 2.1 but the v1.2 software in the one I intend to buy is fine for most use except open cockpit aircraft. (In retrospect I suspect that is an intercom issue so even less important to me as I intend to use it with the PM1000 II intercom.) He says he can e-mail an installation manual to me.
16 No signs yet of SL40 installation manual, but a Google search turns up a copy on an EAA web page, so download that. It appears to be the exact thing I need, as it's got all the II Morrow branding on it. The Rotax FlyDat in the factory clearance sale looks less attractive now that I've done a bit of research on it (hard to download info, for instance) so decide to give that a miss for now. Look again at Dynon possibilities and draw up D180 combined display to see how it might fit on the main panel. There is room for the ASI & altimeter (plus one other full-size 3.125" instrument) so that is a workable possibility. If going for Dynon engine monitoring, seems little point in choosing the separate EMS box as the combined (large-screen) FlightDEK D180 is cheaper than the 2 small-screen boxes (EFIS-D10A & EMS-D10).
17 Cover side of table at north end of garage with polyethylene sheet to catch overspray and arrange wire hangers for OR4, 2 off OR5, W19, W20 & 2 off W21. Draw-file edges of OR4 and polish up on 100 grade Scotchbrite wheel. Use the same wheel to dress out file marks on edges of W19 - W21. Will need to replace the wheel soon as it's nearly worn down. Draw-file sides of OR5s and polish them up on the ScotchBrite wheel. Degrease all the parts in acetone and hang on the wires. Spray both sides with yellow zinc chromate aerosol. Give them another coat a couple of hours later. 875.2
18 Turn on heaters. Start preparing for BID reinforcements and then remember the problem noticed earlier of a void between the double rib (at BL 95.5 - 97.5) and the bottom skin. I can slide a ruler 30mm under it on the outboard face at one point, and a hacksaw blade goes nearly all the way across. Phone Roger at the factory and he says that it's not crucial to have the bond over the entire surface, but probably a good idea to inject Redux and fill the gap. Try to abrade the bonding area by scratching around within the gap with a broken hacksaw blade. Clean out with the airline, which demonstrates that the void does in fact go all the way across. In an effort to encourage the Redux to flow into the gap, hoist the wing tip up as far as it will go. Add a flexible plastic tube extension to a 10ml syringe and into the end of that fit a short piece of 4mm brass tube, flattened at the end so as to fit a little way into the gap between rib and skin. Mix 20g + 8g Redux and use the syringe to apply it. Seems reasonably successful although the Redux doesn't seem to be flowing much. Trying a heat gun to make it less viscous just makes it cure faster, so find a thin strip of metal and wiggle it around in the gap to help distribute the Redux as well as possible. Dress it into a reasonable fillet and wipe off the excess with paper towels. 22C, 52% RH. Leave the wing tip raised until the Redux has gone off a bit. A couple of hours later lower the wing and mark up with felt-tip pen the areas where BID strips should go in the root area. Abrade the BID bonding areas inside the triangle at the root with a small piece of Perma-Grit sheet. Lay out 2 layers of 50mm-wide BID from the already-cut stock onto a pre-marked strip of polyethylene. Mix a peg-1 (30g) batch of epoxy on the beam balance. The anti-drip tubes on the dispenser bottles work well, but the resin one could do with being slightly larger (4mm instead of 1/8"?) as the more viscous resin takes more effort than preferred to squeeze out. Wet out the BID. Mix another 30g batch of epoxy and to about half of it add 1 dose of flox. That only goes about half-way to filling all the required corners, but a nib of Redux left over from the top skin bonding need to be filed off at the forward end of the angled rib before proceeding. Add a dose of flox to the remaining epoxy, which is just enough to fill the remaining corners. Cut BID & polyethylene to length and apply to the upper-skin to spar junction and to the 2 acute-angle vertical corners. This is so much easier with the wooden applicator tools! Lay out a slightly longer length of 2-layer BID on tramlined polyethylene. Mix a peg-2 (45g) batch of epoxy and wet out the BID. Cut to length and apply to remaining corners within the triangle. Cut 75mm peel-ply tape to length and apply to all layups. 23C, 52% RH. Leave heaters on. 880.1
19 Turn off heaters. Pick up factory-clearance SL40 radio and PM1000 II intercom from Ian Rickard at Europa Club dinner.
21 Remove the wire hangers and polyethylene sheet from the zinc chromate spraying operation & store the sprayed parts back in the drawer. All the leftover 50mm-wide BID strip has been used, so cut some lengths off the already-marked short BID roll. Fold them (seems better than rolling to preserve dimensions) & store in plastic bag to keep clean until needed. Remove peel-ply from triangle area layups. File off the BID where it extended onto the pre-cut hole for the transverse pushrod in the angled rib. Check that the SL40 & PM1000 II light up when powered & that the radio display responds as expected to buttons. Draw up first thoughts on harness as the one that came with the 2 units was incorrectly wired (although pretty nicely done). Observe that the SL40 & PM1000 II installations manuals have conflicting advice about screens - the SL40 one advises to ground the cable screens at both ends, which is just bad audio practice! Turn up & solder together a new dispenser spout for the resin container from 8mm brass rod and 4mm brass tube. 5mm would be ideal, with a collar soldered on, but that size tube doesn't seem to be readily available. 880.7
22 Get W33 pitot/static head, 543-204 tube grommets & port aileron pushrod (TU2 part) out of trailer. However, can't find TU21RM PVC tubing. The file shows it in box 7, but that was emptied some time ago when the outrigger legs, etc were moved to the garage. Exhaustive searches fail to locate it so order placed for replacement from factory. Turn on heaters. Scuff-sand all remaining BID strip bonding areas inboard of BL39. Mix peg-1 (30g) batch of epoxy & add 2 doses flox. Put most into large syringe & apply to corners. Stops coming out after a short time. Much effort to unblock nozzle results in only brief improvement. Seems to have been just too stiff a mix and it was going dry when compressed. Scrape rest out of syringe and apply by (gloved) finger to the rest of the corners out to BL39. Lay out about 900mm polyethylene sheet and 2 layers of 50mm BID. Mix peg-2 (45g) batch of epoxy and wet out BID. Some left over so paint it onto bonding areas. Cut & lay on BID, Lay out about 870mm polyethylene & 2 layers BID. Mix peg-1 (30g) batch of epoxy & wet out BID. Cut and apply to remaining areas inboard of BL39. Peel-ply all layups & leave heaters on to cure at 24C, 40% RH. 883.5
23 TU21RM tube arrives. Remove all peel-ply from yesterday's layups and file edges of pushrod hole. Drill holes in recess for pitot/static tubes and countersink lower side to clear weld fillets. Mark spar position on underside of wing by measuring forward from TE at BL97.5 and BL127. Erect perpendicular to spar line passing through pitot/static head depression. Offer up pitot/static head, align with marked line and mark fixing hole positions on underside of wing. Drill 5mm. Temporarily attach pitot/static head (need to add 2 [M5] washers under head of each 3/8" button head screw to avoid biting into stiff part of anchor nut). Re-check alignment of pitot & static tubes with marked line on underside of wing, then drill through the anchor nut wings 2.8mm until just touching the back of the mounting plate. Remove pitot/static head, drill through rivet holes & countersink them on the underside with a held-held 5mm drill bit. Apply Duralac to anchor nut fixing holes & to rivet, pull 1st rivet while using 2nd to keep anchor nut aligned. Apply Duralac to 2nd rivet & other hole in anchor nut & pull up 2nd rivet. Repeat process for 2nd anchor nut. Re-fit pitot/static head & check alignment - looks perfect. Mark out hole positions for PVC tubing on ribs at 108mm & 130mm back from spar & 20mm up from bottom skin. On root rib mark 130mm back from spar and 2mm up & down from centre line. Spot through all holes with 6mm drill so as not to lose them under later layups. 885.9
24 Remove pitot/static head in case it gets knocked. Make clip material for pitot & static tubing using 2 layers BID approx 160mm x 200mm and out-dated epoxy from pump. Make 15mm wide wooden spacer to go between former tubes & use polyethylene sheet & peel-ply as for stall-warner tube clips made on 2007-08-31. Cut about 400mm off one piece of 20mm conduit. Wrap it in several turns of polyethylene sheet, then wrap 170mm x 300mm BID (wetted-out with old epoxy on polyethylene sheet), peeling off polyethylene sheet as it goes. Wrap with several turns of peel-ply and leave suspended on stiff wire through centre to cure. 22C, 37% RH. Order several rotary files from Perma-Grit website; M4 x 10 button-head screws for radio mounting rack and 3/32" T-handle hex key for SL40 extraction/insertion from B&H online. 888.3
25 Remove peel-ply formers from hole and clip layups, Lay out about 2m polyethylene with tramlines and put 2 layers 50mm BID strip on it. Abrade skin-spar areas between BL39 and BL75 with small piece of Perma-Grit sheet. Mix peg-7 (120g) epoxy batch (biggest that will go in a sponge-pudding bowl). Decant some off and add 1 dose flox. Wet out BID. Apply flox - just enough. Cut and lay on BID & peel-ply. Lay out about 1 metre polyethylene & BID. Abrade BL75 - BL95.5 bonding areas. Mix peg-3 (60g) epoxy batch & wet out BID as economically as possible. Paint bonding areas with epoxy. Add a small dose of flox to remaining epoxy & apply to corners. Cut and apply BID, then peel-ply. 23C, 37% RH. 892.4
26 Perma-Grit order arrives. Make a block to hold the rotary files and cutting discs from a piece of mahogany window-sill & screw it onto the side of the resin cupboard. Find that one won't fit easily in the drilled hole because it has copper-coloured weld material on the shaft. It won't go properly into the Dremel collet either so arrange to send back for replacement. Remove peel-ply from yesterday's layups. Cut 5 strips full-width of 50mm BID from the already-marked short roll. Lay out 2 layers of them on 2-off 900mm lengths of polyethylene. Abrade all spar-skin bonding areas BL97.5 to tip. Re-fill resin & hardener dispensing bottles from supply tins. Mix peg-5 (90g) epoxy batch & wet out 1 length of BID. Mix remainder of epoxy with flox after lightly brushing bonding areas. Apply flox to top corners, cut and apply BID. Repeat with another 90g mix on second length of BID. Apply peel-ply. 24C, 34% RH. Leave heaters on overnight as usual. 895.7
28 Post Perma-Grit countersink for replacement, ordering some other items at the same time. B&H order arrives. T-handle hex key is much easier to use on SL40 extractor and the M4 button-head screw heads appear identical in profile to the heads of the 6-32 UNC screws that came with the frame. Remove peel-ply from last layups. Offer up aileron to check horn box positions. Looks as if they are almost correct (unlike the starboard ones) but more careful measurements will be needed. Check BID in bag left over from starboard wing and measure up how much more will be needed. Cut 2 off 150mm wide strips from short BID roll (2nd is only just full length as we're coming to the end of the roll). Cut 1 strip 100mm wide for aileron hinge reinforcements. 896.3
29 Order 3 off each mic & phone jacks from AFE online. 12C, 68% RH. Mark out 100mm tramlines on polyethylene sheet & cut 100mm BID to length for hinge reinforcements. Abrade bonding areas with the large fine Perma-Grit flexible sheet, and with emery cloth for the inner faces. Notice that I forgot to file off the glass needles at the edges of the last layup, and particularly at the tip, so do that now. Wet out BID with peg-3 (60g) batch of epoxy and lay up onto hinge flanges. Apply peel-ply. 20C, 47% RH. 897.5
30 Perma-Grit stuff arrives. Make holder for large round files from another offcut of mahogany and screw it to the wall under the other files. Drill the end of the spar slotter to clear a #6 woodscrew and add a screw to the end of the file rack for it. Start to draw up the main circuit diagram in CADintosh, overlaying it on a TIFF copy of the one in the PDF manual. Despite being marked "issue 1", it appears to be the latest version, matching my paper issue 4. Turn heaters on again & remove peel-ply from yesterday's layup. Cut and file off excess BID at hinge line. Refer back to journal of 2003-04-25 for how I did the flox corner in the aileron closeout on the starboard wing (nearly 5 years ago - not a good rate of work!). Lay out 2 layers of full length pieces of 150mm BID on polyethylene sheet, and add short pieces at each end to complete required length. Abrade bonding areas of closeout moulding and bottom skin. Have to remove 3D Mouldings label as it's in the bonding area. Fit the wooden spacers into the closeout to keep it near the correct size during cure. Mix 4 strokes of the older epoxy in the pump and add barely 4 doses of flox (don't want to make it too stiff and block the syringe like a few days ago). Fill syringe and inject into the corner. Run out before the end, but dressing the applied area up with mixing-stick and finger recovers enough to partly re-fill the syringe and finish off the rest. Mix a peg-5 (90g) batch of fresh epoxy & wet out part of BID. Looks like less than half, so make next batch peg-7 (120g). This wets out rest with plenty spare for sample. Cut BID and apply to each part of the closeout. The wooden tools are good for getting it into the corner. Some bubbles appear under the layup. Remember the (so far unused) corrugated metal roller and find it's really good for removing the bubbles - more pressure can be applied than with a brush, and without dragging the layup sideways. Started to apply from the bottom, so with 150mm BID instead of the estimated 130mm width, there is a small amount overlapping onto the top skin bonding area. Scissor trim that off to about the corner of the closeout moulding. Apply peel-ply as 3 strips of 70mm tape. 23C, 33% RH. 901.0
31 Remove peel-ply from yesterday's layups. Cut BID for W18 reinforcements from main roll. Mark BID position on both skin and rib BL54 (after checking journal and pictures of starboard wing, because the measurements in the manual 100mm, 75mm, 50mm are misleading and should be 100mm, 90mm, 75mm). Abrade bonding areas. Clean up mid W18 on 100-grade ScotchBrite wheel (must get replacement as it's really wearing out fast now). Add a new peg to beam balance at position 4 to allow a 75g mix. Cut about 500mm off 250mm peel-ply roll. Mix 2 strokes of older epoxy with 3 doses flox. Butter onto rib face. Slide W18 in from underneath at an angle and press it against the rib, making sure it's getting well-floxed all over. Poke cocktail sticks into the holes and slice them off flush with W18. Spread flox into all corners around W18 and between rib and skin. Mix peg-4 (75g) batch of fresh epoxy and paint it onto bonding areas. Fold largest piece of BID in half along 330mm length. Lay onto skin with fold at bottom of rib, then unfold onto rib, arranging at TE to conform to rib-skin junction. Trim a corner that extends onto the top skin bonding area. Wet out fully with brush and ensure it goes smoothly into all corners with no bubbles. Repeat with middle and smallest pieces of BID. Make a cut in the middle of the peel-ply, going about 200mm in from one end. Lay it on similarly to BID, with the end of the cut positioned at the rear end of the flat bottom skin. Trim the upper half to follow the curve of the TE end of the rib. More epoxy left over then expected and it's starting to exotherm, so decant off the bulk of it before adding a sample label. 24C, 32% RH. Make holder for 250mm peel-ply roll from broomshaft and a couple of mahogany offcuts. Screw it to the side of the work table alongside the 1000mm peel-ply roll. Get out OR6, W21s, AN525-10R32 screws, AN960-10L washers, & 10-32 pre-assembly nuts. Put W21/OR6 assembly together and check how W18s fit on it when in their slots. All alignment seems fine although there are air gaps between the W18s and the rib faces that will need care to ensure they are well-filled with flox. Mask off inner faces and top edges of W21s against epoxy drips. Mark out 100mm, 90mm, 75mm lines on skin and rib sides for extent of layups. 904.3

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