Europa #435 G-RODO Build Journal - 2013 04

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1 Check instrument module F14 for fan mounting space and decide a single 92mm square type would fit perfectly near the centre. Look for 12V fans on Maplin website; they have a suitable-looking one. Check RS website and find they have one of the same size but quieter and lower wattage; of course, it's more expensive ... but order it anyway.
3 Fan arrives from RS. Combine the databases for electrical items and load analysis. Don't know why they ever were separate. Perhaps the wiring database could be merged in too, to make things easier.
4 Find a suitable piece of polyethylene sheet and on it mark 1 off 200mm x 75mm, 2 off 400mm x 75mm and 2 off 700mm x 75mm rectangles. Cut them out with about 50mm border around each. Apply masking tape and parcel tape to the area where the landing gear frame will fit in the top inner corners of the tunnel. 1454.1
5 Take off masking & parcel tapes as I've decided they will not achieve the desired effect. Just mark lines with felt-tip to show where layups should stop. Abrade bonding area at top of tunnel & front of firewall. Cut the 3 pieces of BID 200mm x 75mm & lay them on the pre-marked polyethylene sheet. Clear the seized pistons in the epoxy pump, then mix one and a bit strokes epoxy. Wet out the BID and to the small remaining amount of epoxy add 1 dose flox (too much, really). Mix and butter it into the gaps along the joint between the firewall and the cockpit module. Lay on the BID, peel off the polyethylene sheet, stipple out and add peel-ply in 2 sections (to avoid it objecting to the bend). Mix a test batch of Redux with the suspect black hardener and some older resin. Make a test joint with it & leave in the tunnel with the epoxy sample. Set up the tent and the fan heater on thermostat setting 3.5. Initially 14C, 47%RH but quite quickly 22C, 32%RH. 28C, 16%RH by bedtime. Leave fan heater running to cure overnight. 1455.9
6 tickLayup and samples well cured; turn off fan heater. Try breaking apart the sample joint; all the layups split without the Redux giving way. Consider that if this aeroplane is to be flying by the time I'm 70, I'll need to get about another 1000 hours of work done on it in the next 2 years. That works out at about 10 hours a week - doesn't sound too hard to do ....
8 With Dorothy's help, turn fuselage onto port side. Attach a rope to the AN4-12A bolt in CS14S and tie the other end to the wall to prevent the fuselage rolling onto its bottom. Mix some Araldite 420 and pour it into the small voids along the port side join between the fuselage shell and the cockpit module. Set up a polyethylene tent and put the fan heater under it at half-power with the thermostat set to 3.5. Get LG08P, LG08S and AIC060820 bushes out of their boxes. Note that the bush will not go into the LG08 hole by hand so will need to be pressed in. Mark and cut bush into 4 off 6mm lengths. Square up cut ends on lathe. Deburr inside & out. Degrease bushes and LG08 ends with acetone. Fit some scraps of aluminium tightly between forks of first LG08 to prevent distortion when pressing in the bushes. Apply Loctite 638 to inside of hole in LG08, and press bush in using bench vise. Clean off excess Loctite squeezed out, and repeat for other side of fork. Repeat for both bushes on 2nd LG08. Almost out of Loctite 638 - will have to order some more. Fit the LG08s to LG09 and check clearances etc. Fitting LG08s about flush with the ends of LG09 gives a small clearance from the landing gear frame. Drill through LG08S into LG09 with 4.8mm drill. Fit AN3-6A and temporary nut to keep alignment. Swivel LG08S over for access and drill through other side 4.8mm. Open that hole to 6mm and drive Spirol pin in part-way. Remove AN3 bolt and drill that side out to 6mm. Drive Spirol pin right through. Slide LG09 out slightly to clear swarf, then re-set with LG08S against stop. Fit LG08P against stop with outer face about flush with end of LG09. Drill as for LG08S but use temporary M6 bolt to hold at second stage instead of Spirol pin. Dismantle from LG09 and clear swarf. Re-assemble with M6 x 60mm bolt and plain nut (from stock - doesn't seem to be a nut in the kit). 1459.9
9 With Dorothy's help, turn fuselage onto starboard side and secure as before with rope to wall. Mix some Araldite 420 and pour into the small voids on the starboard side of the join between fuselage and cockpit module. Add a small amount of flox to the remainder to fill a small hole at the corner of the thigh support rib. Erect tent and leave to cure. Order a small tube of Loctite 638 and some ring terminals from RS. Adjust dimensions on terminal posts drawing and print out. Hacksaw 3 brass M6 x 50mm full-thread hex bolts to about 31mm and face each in lathe to 30mm. Cut 2 pieces just over 120mm x 40mm from 1/4" SRBF sheet. I'd like to clean up the edges with them clamped together, but note that I don't seem to have any milling cutters larger than 12mm diameter. 1461.4
10 Loctite 638 & ring terminals delivered from RS. Order M6 brass nuts and washers for terminal posts, and 16mm end mill. As Dorothy is in a meeting, rig up a support for the aft end of the fuselage with rope through an eye screwed into a roof joist. Turn fuselage upside down again, supporting it from inside the cockpit to avoid stressing the edges (can't get a good grip on the outside of the footwells to lift from there). Lower aft end onto old cable reel as before to support aft bulkhead clear of floor. Set one of the SRBF pieces up in the milling vise and adjust by trial & error to get the scribed line level, then mill down that edge to the line with the 6mm end mill already in place. Repeat for 2nd piece of SRBF. Abrade the bonding area along the starboard vertical edge of the join between the cockpit module and the firewall with a flap wheel on the angle grinder. Cut 3 already-marked pieces of BID 400mm x 75mm and lay on marked piece of polyethylene sheet. Mix 3 strokes of epoxy and wet out BID. To remainder add a small amount of flox and butter it onto the corner of the bonding area to fill low spots. Lay on the BID, peel off the polyethylene sheet, stipple on and add peel-ply. Erect tent and leave to cure. 1462.9
11 Abrade port vertical side of joint between cockpit module & firewall with flap disc on angle grinder. Cut out 3 off 400mm x 75mm BID, lay onto polyethylene sheet. Mix 3 strokes of epoxy & wet out BID. Add small amount of flox to remainder and butter into hollows on corner of bonding area. Lay on BID, peel off polyethylene sheet, stipple out, apply peel-ply. Erect tent and leave to cure. 1463.7
12 31C, 20% RH; layup cured; turn off fan heater.
13 Remove peel-ply from layups on forward vertical edges of wheel well. Clean off projecting parts of layup with TC files and open up holes for landing gear frame again. Check fit of landing gear frame and do some more fettling to get it fitting better, although because the top & bottom tubes are not co-planar it still doesn't fit all that nicely. Abrade bonding areas along bottom edges of wheel-well with Perma-Grit sheet for the fuselage skin and the flap wheel on the angle grinder for the inner face of the cockpit module. Wipe dust off with acetone-soaked tissue. Cut 6 off 700mm x 75mm pieces of BID and lay onto polyethylene sheet. Alas, last couple of pieces must have been marked with the weave skewed, as they are too small. Cut a couple of more generous 75mm strips at 45 degrees across the full width of the BID roll. Lay them on the polyethylene sheet and trim to length in-situ. Mix 4 strokes epoxy and wet out one of the layups. Reserve the small amount of left-over epoxy for flox. Mix another 4 strokes epoxy and wet out other layup. Paint the bonding areas sparingly with epoxy. Add small amount of flox to the combined leftover epoxy and butter it into the hollows along the corners of the bonding area. For each side in turn, lay on the strip of BID, peel off the polyethylene sheet, stipple out and apply peel-ply, in several pieces to ease fitting. Arrange the spacer device made earlier and drape the tent over it with the fan heater on half power at thermostat 3.5. 16mm milling cutter arrives from Chronos. Set up the 2 pieces of SRBF together on a flat surface, resting on the previously-machined edges. Clamp together with small G-cramps. Set level in machine vise and mill off top edges down to scribed line with the 16mm end mill. With the cramps still in place, release from vise and place horizontal with a sacrificial spacer to keep it clear of the vise base. Remove cramps and mill ends true and to length with the side of the 16mm cutter. Check stock of M4 screws and find none suitable; there are some M5 countersunk-head screws of about the right length so all fixing holes can be 5mm (which is also OK for AN3 if I decide to use them for mounting). Re-position cutter in line with edge & side (ie cutter centre offset 8mm in each direction from corner of workpiece) and zero the dials for a datum. Change to a 5mm slot drill and drill all the 5mm fixing holes, using X-Y table to position them (offsets of 18x18, 18x38, 48x28, 88x28, 118x18, 118x38 from the datum). Similarly use 6mm slot drill to make the holes for the M6 terminal posts (28x28, 48x8, 108x28 from datum). Finally counterbore 4mm deep for the bolt heads with a 12mm slot drill. Remove from vise, swap top & bottom pieces and mark one edge for orientation. Layup well cured by bedtime; 37C, 17% RH; turn off fan heater. 1468.4
15 Countersunk bottom face of bottom SRBF piece for assembly screws. Abrade inner faces of both pieces for bonding. Mix 10g + 4g Redux and apply generously to bottom SRBF piece, filling counterbores for the M6 bolt heads. Drop the brass M6 bolts into place and drop top SRBF piece into place, checking orientation. Fit M5 assembly screws, lock-washers and nuts. Fit temporary M5 bolts in fixing holes. Add M6 brass nuts to bolts. Tighten all nuts. Wipe off with acetone-soaked tissue the excess Redux that has squeezed out. Set up-side-down on a plastic tub and fill the 6mm holes at the back of the bolt heads up to the surface with Redux. Leave in boiler cupboard to cure. Remove peel-ply from BID at bottom edges of wheel-well and file off projecting ends of glass. Assemble LG02 swinging arm onto LG01 landing gear mounting frame and position whole assembly in wheel-well, with LG02 propped up roughly horizontal. Tap LG01 well home and check for 1.5mm minimum gap between vertical tubes and firewall. Adjust LG02 with wooden packers until equidistant from each side of wheel-well, while keeping LG01 as fully home as possible in the fuselage sockets. Once all securely wedged in place and all clearances re-checked, drill through horizontal hole in starboard top tube into tunnel wall. The bit in the tight-fit drill kit is not long enough to get right through both the tube and the tunnel, but makes a hole in the tunnel deep enough to put a AN3 bolt into to help maintain position. Drill port side and again it doesn't go right through. Take out LG01 and drill the holes right through the tunnel walls. Replace LG01 and insert AN3-13A bolts with washers and temporary nuts. Check LG02 lateral position again - seems about perfect. Remove LG02 from LG01 to make it less unwieldy when turning fuselage over. 1471.1
16 Lift fuselage so that the headrests rest on the low table instead of the fuselage sides, and push table far enough aft to allow access to the footwells. Drill through the 4 holes in the lower LG01 tubes, inserting AN3 bolts in turn to keep alignment. As before, the Tight Fit drill bit is not quite long enough to get right through any of these holes on the side of the wheel well. Remove LG01 from fuselage. Drill out the holes. Replace LG01 and insert all 6 AN3-13A bolts. The 4 in the lower tubes are not long enough and will need to be replaced by AN3-14A or AN3-15A bolts to get enough thread for the stiffnuts. I won't order any new bolts until I find whether the AN3-15A specified for the vertical holes in the upper tubes will be long enough there. 1471.9
17 With Dorothy's help, lift fuselage out of garage and turn over. Remove low table from dolly & cable-drum that supported aft end. Carry fuselage in and replace on dolly. Return low table & cable drum to trailer. Mark lines on top of tunnel parallel to firewall and 25mm aft of it. Check fuselage for transverse level. Clamp a length of wood to the top half of the firewall, spaced with blocks at a slight angle, to allow a laser level to project its line along both the exposed part of the LG01 top tube and the top of the tunnel. Use a plumb bob to mark a point directly above the port top tube. Suspend the laser level on a pin driven in at that point, and align its beam with the forward part of the top tube. Mark where the projected line crosses the previously-marked transverse line. Repeat for the starboard top tube. 1472.7
18 Drill the marked points on the top of the tunnel through into the LG01 top tubes with a 2.8mm drill bit, then open out to 4.8mm. Insert AN3-15A bolts. One is threadbound and the other almost so, so will need to use AN3-14A instead. Now that the AN3-15A bolts are out of the packet, try them in the lower tube positions where the AN3-13A is too short. The AN3-15A is threadbound there, too, so will need AN3-14A all round. Order 8 off AN3-14A from LAS Aerospace, and some spare threaded drill bits. Check what parts are needed for the rudder controls. Get CS18, CS19, XSCS18P, XSCS19P, 7X7 cable out of box 9 in trailer, CS23 out of box 2, CS31 out of box 3 and CS21/2, CS22 out of box 8 in garage. Mark and cut CS31 into 4 equal pieces about 57mm long. Deburr ends and abrade outside surface with coarse sandpaper. Clean up insides of rudder pedal bottom tubes with a small sanding drum. However, the shaft is not long enough to get far enough in, so find an offcut of 10mm tube and slit the end with a hacksaw for about 50mm. Slide a piece of coarse sandpaper into the slot and wind it around the tube. Put the other end in a drill chuck. That works well and allows the rather rusty insides of the tubes to be cleaned and roughened adequately. Will need to squirt some ACF-50 in to minimise continued rusting further down the tubes. Clean & degrease inserts and ends of tubes with acetone & old toothbrush. Mix 15g + 6g Redux and add a couple of small doses of flox so it's not too stiff. Split a mixing stick to make it narrow enough to go down the tube. Mark it at the length of the CS31 inserts so I know how deep to go. Spread the Redux/flox mixture inside the end of each tube in turn, then lightly smear some onto the outside of each insert and slide it in, twisting as it goes to help spread the adhesive evenly. Wipe off excess Redux/flox. Push the inserts in CS19 & XSCS19 in by about 10mm. Bring all assemblies in to boiler cupboard and leave to cure (27C, 20%RH). Bring out the terminal post assembly and start to remove the temporary bolts. Alas, one shears just under the head, so try drilling it out, starting with a small drill bit. It warms up quite a bit as I drill which softens the Redux enough to remove the rest of the bolt. Clean off the excess Redux at the back of the M6 bolt heads and a few other spots. 1476.0
19 AN3-14A bolts arrive from LAS Aerospace. Remove the AN3-13A bolts from the 4 positions on the lower tubes of LG01 and replace with AN3-14A. Also fit AN3-14A bolts in 2 empty vertical holes in top tubes. Check that none are threadbound and that the stiffnuts will have threads visible beyond them. Fix all bolts in place with temporary plain nuts. Get out sheet 2 of the 3mm ply. Check fuselage fore-and aft level - it's about 2.6 degrees nose-up. Mark a line on inner face of port footwell at the same angle, to help get the template level with the datum. Start to make a paper template but it's too floppy and not satisfactory. Find a cardboard box with sides large enough for the templates. Cut port one first, leaving the aft end uncut and repeatedly trimming small amounts off the curve until it both fits and is sitting at the correct angle. This takes a surprisingly long time. Repeat for the starboard footwell, which seems to go a bit faster. 1478.6
20 Take a couple of bags of blue foam offcuts from the trailer to the garage, for making rudder pedal floor supports.
22 Trace card patterns of footwell floors onto sheet 2 of 3mm ply and cut out with padsaw. Trim curve on port one to final line with bandsaw. Realise that there is a slight curve in the edge of the cockpit module flange where the port footwell floor is to rest, which confounds my earlier measuring of angles to get the footwell floors parallel to the fuselage datum. I think it might be best to make the holes in the sides of the footwells first and see how everything lines up before doing anything more to the footwell floor panels. Mark the starboard inner face of the footwell for the hole centres, and likewise the port side, but 150mm back from the front instead of 105mm. I don't have a 30mm holesaw in stock, so after a brief and ineffective try with a forstner bit, buy a 29mm one at Screwfix. First drill 2mm pilot holes then open up with the holesaw. Get the rudder pedals out from the boiler cupboard (27.7C, 20%RH). Get out CS22 bearing blocks and mark them for orientation. Start to make a check assembly but the holes in CS21 are too small for the bolts. Open them all up with a 4.8mm drill. Assemble CS18, CS21, XSCS19P. 1480.3
23 Assemble CS19, CS21, XSCS18P. Everything looks fine and in line. Mark CS22 as port and starboard and which way is up and forward. Try assembling both onto rudder pedal assemblies. Not very satisfactory as everything is a bit floppy although the bearing blocks CS22 seem a bit tight on the pedal shafts. Take apart again and assemble just starboard CS22 onto CS19. For each bolt, need 4 washers AN960-10L on bottom face to stop temporary nut becoming threadbound. With the nuts done up, CS22 is almost rigid on CS19, but swivel it a bit with difficulty. Dismantle and examine witness marks (polished areas on SRBF). Re-assemble CS22 without CS19. Chuck a small sanding drum on the pillar drill and run it cautiously around the bore. Re-assemble onto CS19 and the fit is slightly easier. Repeat a few times, sanding lightly. Try a Dremel sanding drum for better control, to remove high spots only. After several repetitions of the process, achieve a reasonable running fit. Repeat with starboard CS22 on CS18. This time realise that the bearing scraper might do a better job, and also save some re-assembly. That goes well, it's easy to see the polished areas once the bearing block is split and the curved part of the scraper removes them easily without touching other areas. Repeat again with port CS22, first on XSCS19P and then on XSCS18P. Cut away with a padsaw between the 29mm holes in the sides of the footwells to form slots, and clean up the shapes with a TC file. Dismantle the rudder pedal assemblies and try inserting them into the slots. Some more fettling needed to make room for the rings around the bearing areas. Inset all pedals and re-assemble with CS21s. Add CS22s with bolts dropped in loosely to hold position, and insert ply footwell floor pieces to se how they fit. Port seems quite close, but starboard will need more trimming (it had only been cut to rough outline so far anyway). Check that the CS21s can be aligned as required with the engine mount points. Unwrap CS23s and mark for orientation as for CS22s. Dismantle rudder pedals from footwells. Trial assemble starboard CS23 onto CS18. 1483.4
25 Work on fit of starboard CS23 & CS18 using bearing scraper as before until satisfactory. Repeat for post CS23 & XSCS18P. Trim forward and curved side of port footwell floor on bandsaw. Assemble rudder pedals in footwells and insert footwell floors. Insert lower halves of CS22s & CS23s. Check for thwartwise alignment against engine mount points. Fore-and-aft alignment looks about right but is tricky to measure as it's hard to see into the footwell. What's needed is a gauge - 90mm for starboard and 135mm for port. With bearing blocks in place, mark underside of footwell floor panels for aft edge trim, then cut each to the marked line. Reviewing items in the manual, remember that I haven't yet checked if the mass balance weight hits the bump stop at tailplane TE 12 degrees up. Rig port tailplane. Re-assemble the containment bulkhead. One weight on the mass balance arm is about right to counterbalance it. Neutral is about -9.5 degrees and full up is +5.9 degrees, ie about 15.4 degrees TE up from neutral. Remove weight, disconnect arm and turn adjuster half a turn onto the thread. Re-assemble and measure angles again. Now the weight hits the stop at about 14.5 degrees TE up. Dismantle and adjust again by a full turn more. Re-assemble and check; weight hits stop at about 13 degrees TE up. Dismantle and adjust by another half turn inwards. Re-assemble. Neutral now at about -9.4 degrees and weight hits stop at +2.7 degrees giving 12.1 degrees TE up which is good enough for me! Some of the washers that were supposed to have been stuck onto the BID bracket have come off again, so degrease them and re-assemble them with a smear of epoxy adhesive. Get the rudder cable thimbles AN100-C4, tension springs T41780 and Nicopress tin-plated sleeves 428-3VG out of box 5 in the garage. (The incorrect 28-2-G zinc-plated Nicopress sleeves supplied by Europa are still in their sealed packets - see Europa News number 38 June 2003 Tech Talk.) Slide one end of the 7x7 stainless cable out of the retaining tape and thread it through a Nicopress sleeve, then loop and back through again. Fit a thimble in the loop and pull the cable tight around it, leaving a minimum free length. Insert the Nicopress sleeve into the clamping tool and do up with a spanner, keeping the loop of cable tight around the thimble and the short end just proud of the sleeve, until the sleeve starts to grip. Do up the clamp fully. Check it with the gauge - it's well in tolerance. Repeat with the other end of the cable. 1487.5
27 Dismantle rudder pedals. Remove LG01 frame. From an offcut of 3/4" wooden dowel, cut 4 pieces about 25mm long and turn them up into plugs to fit the aft ends of the tubes, to prevent Redux entering. Vacuum out footwells. Mix 20g + 8G of Redux and add flox. Butter it into corners where LG01 fits. Not enough; mix another batch and add flox. Spread most of it on, leaving some for filling later. Push LG01 into position and insert bolts (4 off AN3-14A on bottom tubes; 2 off AN3-14A on vertical holes in top tubes; 2 off AN3-13A in horizontal holes in top tubes). Add washers and do up all nuts finger-tight to draw bolt heads into position. Butter more Redux/flox mixture into gaps in corners and spread as evenly as possible. Wipe excess Redux off bolt heads and nuts as far as possible. As things stand, the port footwell floor panel has to bow downwards in the middle to accommodate the pedal bearing. Once it's had a couple of layers of BID applied, it won't be able to flex so easily, so really need to fix things so it doesn't have to bow at all. So, need to trim port support (forward lip of cockpit module) so that it's level instead of low in the middle. Use a diamond burr in the Dremel to grind back the extreme port end where it attaches to the fuselage, and use a Perma-Grit short block to sand the rest straight & level. Also need to sand the curved side of the ply panel to allow it to settle slightly lower against the outboard side of the footwell. Re-assemble rudder pedals and lower bearing blocks No stresses, all looks much better. Make 90mm & 135mm gauge blocks for the fore-and-aft alignment. The starboard one is fine but the port one is a bit tight - measuring the footwells shows they are more like 40mm different, rather than the specified 45mm, so my longer gauge block may be too long. Make gauge blocks for the spacing between CS21 and the engine mount points. Erect tent in front of tunnel and set up fan heater on half power at thermostat 3.5 for Redux to cure. 1491.9
29 Neville tells me the cowl mouldings will be ready to collect this week. Get out the instructions for Graham Singleton's pushrod rudder drive mod and scan them so I have a backup copy. Start to look for the parts so I can check the fit on the fuselage rear bulkhead but can't locate them. The parts database shows them as mostly distributed between boxes 13 & 14. I find box 12 with the tailwheel stop in it as listed, but can't see box 13 or box 14 in either garage or trailer. Spend quite a bit of (unlogged) time searching without success. I can remember assembling the bellcrank to check travel, but according to the journal that was in September/October 2003 and I don't seem to have any record of those parts since. Is it possible I left the bellcrank assembled on its brackets somewhere and didn't return it to the box? However as well as the parts for the Singleton rudder drive mod, box 14 contained the LG11 strut & fixing hardware for Mod 51 so it shouldn't have been discarded anyway . One of the boxes might be quite small but I can't see how I could have overlooked them completely particularly as the LG11 strut and the rudder pushrod are fairly long. Will have to leave it for the moment to the subconscious to turn up fresh ideas about where they might be hiding. Take down tent around tunnel; 27C, 20% RH. Check rudder pedal tubes alignment with firewall by sighting across a parallel piece of wood held against the firewall. Quite a bit aft at port side. Reduce 145mm block to 140mm and try again - much better but not quite there yet. Take about another 1.5mm off the block and now it's as well in line as I could hope. Clamp 29mm gauge blocks between CS21s and engine mount points for thwartwise alignment. Check tightness of bearing blocks against footwell floors. Starboard outer seems a bit tight. Remove the ply panel and relieve the lip of the cockpit module slightly with the Perma-Grit short block to remove a high spot, and sand the curved edge of the ply to help it seat better. Try again - feels much better. Now I feel confident about the stiffening layups. Lay the ply pieces on the BID as a template and cut out 2 pieces of BID for each. Lay the ply panels on a piece of polyethylene sheet with the BID on top. Mix 4 strokes of epoxy and wet out one panel plus a bit of the second. Mix another 2 strokes and finish wetting-out. Apply peel-ply and erect small tent with heater on half-power at thermostat 3.5. 1493.5
30 Switch off fan heater and take down curing tent (32C, 17% RH). Remove peel-ply from layups. Trim edges with padsaw and finish with Perma-Grit block. Check fit of both again. Dismantle rudder pedals for clear access to footwells. Mark guide lines on inner and forward faces of firewall along top edges of ply panels. Find some suitable pieces of foam from the bags brought in from the trailer. Bandsaw to rough shape and finish with Perm-Grit block, checking fit of ply panels frequently as the foam gets close to finished size. Vacuum sanding dust out of footwells. Mix 1 stroke epoxy and add about 3 doses of Q-Cell to make a fairly dry mixture, non-slump. Spread onto backs and bottoms of foam blocks and place in position. Rest ply panels in place on top to keep them in the right position. 1496.5

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