Europa #435 G-RODO Build Journal - 2003 01

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1 Change bandsaw blade which seems to be getting tired and cut a larger piece of wood into 25-degree wedge shape for sanding aileron LE. Start to mark out BID for layup but find I can't get full length (1540mm) out of the 1-metre width of the roll. Longest piece of 100mm wide would be 1315mm. Mark out 7 shorter pieces. File recent epoxy samples. Post query about BID length on Forum, favouring offset overlap of pieces 900mm & 670mm. 420.4
2 Cut foam wedge out of port aileron for hinge flange. File off lumpy bits on edge of flange, and clean off foam on flange with small coarse Perma-Grit sheet. Remove peel-ply from flange part of closeout. Mark hinge reinforcement positions. Deepen vee with small sanding wedges until hinges will disappear completely behind flange. Peel off LE peel-ply tape and blend in edge of UNI and epoxy. Easier to use file once aileron clamped to bench with aluminium angle along TE, held down on table with trigger clamps. One length of angle not quite long enough, so need to think about making up a couple of longer lengths for later sanding work. Finish with large sanding wedge wrapped in 80-grit sandpaper. Take peel-ply tape off starboard aileron and blend in edge of UNI. Clean up inside of flange again with coarse Perma-Grit as not happy that all foam was removed before. 422.3
3 Phone Neville at factory to check on cutting BID for aileron hinge flange as replies from Forum not completely reassuring. He suggests cutting it a bit wide and stretching it, but if cutting in 2 pieces the overlap should be 2 inches, clear of the hinge reinforcements and offset each layer. Stretch seems to be about 17.5%, so mark out and cut 4 pieces BID 120mm x full width (~1295mm), also 7 shorter pieces already marked. Mark out and cut one more piece 100mm x 200mm to make 8 total for hinge areas. Get out XA2 and other pieces for drive pin in root closeout and study Graham Singleton's advice about making a jig to get hinge pin and bolt same distance apart on both ailerons. Ideally the hinges should go on first so the hinge gaps will be matched, and then drive pins aligned from those. However, that means going out of sequence. Not sure about fitting hinges before doing root closeouts. Think about other possibilities - some sort of jig to align drive pin with both LE of flange and LE of airfoil. Would have to be ambidexterous; Graham's idea is just a plate with 2 holes that can be used either way round. Cut off and mark out 4 pieces of polyethylene sheet for wetting out BID to correct size. 424.0
4 Turn on both fan heaters as it's about 6 C. Cut 4 pieces of peel-ply tape to length of aileron; will need 2 widths each aileron for LE flange. Also cut 8 patches of green peel-ply for 2 extra layers at each hinge position. After lunch scuff-sand glass on LE and inside flange of starboard aileron. Mix 2 strokes epoxy with 2 small doses q-cell for micro slurry. Difficult to get it only on exposed foam. Use mixing stick to carry small amounts to bottom of vee and spread along; seems unlikely to be successful spreading dry micro there as manual suggests. Wipe LE glassed area and inside of flange several times with paper wipes to remove micro slurry as much as possible. Spread 1st long BID piece on polyethylene sheet and find quite easy to adjust to correct size. Mix 3 strokes epoxy and wet out. Well short of full coverage so mix 4 strokes epoxy and wet out fully. Transfer to aileron, positioning with upper edge near LE, then folding back to insert into vee. Difficult because polyethylene resists folding back and whole width slides down rather than just the side under the flange. Have to lift off one end and start again. Manage to keep LE edge reasonably straight except for a couple of areas where it needs to be trimmed back from LE radius. Once reasonably positioned and pressed into root of vee with mixing stick and card, lay on hinge reinforcements and wet out. Decide to try laying 2nd long piece on dry. Goes quite well initially when rolling out and pressing onto LE, but when trying to fold into vee it gets stretched badly in one area after a bit of pulling off and re-positioning. Just about covers required area, though. Scissor trim along flange and other overhangs. Mix 3 strokes epoxy and wet out. Apply 1st peel-ply tape, about centrally on vee. Squeegee out with card. Apply 2nd tape with lower edge into vee and other just extending over LE radius. Pull tight to remove wrinkles and squeegee. Apply 2 patches more peel-ply to each hinge area. Press well in to bottom of vee and smooth out. Secure peel-ply around LE radius with masking tape as it's not quite wet enough there to stay down of its own accord. Erect curing tent and leave to cure. Consider that maybe it would be easier to wet out the entire layup on marked-out polyethylene, then drape over a thin straight-edge to make it bend, and lower the aileron onto it. That could hardly be harder work than the method used today! 427.4
5 Turn off heat in curing tent. All looks OK.
6 Take down curing tent. Remove peel-ply with considerable difficulty. Central area with only single layer in bottom of vee is worst, and a strip of peel-ply gets left behind there under a small puddle of resin. Clean it out as much as possible with Perma-Grit sheets and needle file etc. Root end of flange has curled outwards slightly. Since it's going to be needed true for the planned drive pin alignment jig, warm it gently with hot-air gun and straighten into line. Quite easy and successful. Trim layup ends and flange edge with padsaw and sand to line. See how aluminium angle would work to support layup for port aileron flange. Although thickness of ali prevents it going fully into vee, looks promising so mark out polyethylene sheet for hinge reinforcement areas and a fold line. Make that 40mm in from flange edge to allow room for a bit of pushing in to final 30mm depth. Find a couple of foam blocks to support ali angle on for positioning layup and aileron. Will need to put a few lead weights on the angle to keep it stable. File epoxy samples from last layup. 430.9
7 Very cold in morning, only 6C & 59% RH inside garage so start fan heaters before lunch. Up to 16C, 36% RH by the time I start work. Weigh down aluminium angle with a few lead weights, bottom angle towards working side of table as the inner face of vertical will have the 40mm part for the inside of the flange draped down it. Scuff-sand LE glass and inside of flange on port aileron. Mix 2 strokes epoxy and 2 medium-small doses of q-cell for micro-slurry. Paint onto foam surface using mixing stick as a spatula, which is much more succesful in keeping micro off inside of flange as I can wipe the backside of the stick on the edge of the mixing cup before applying. Lay small fillet of micro in bottom of vee with mixing stick as before. Wipe down with paper towels; seems to actually get more micro on flange as it builds up in front of the paper from the foam side and overflows back on both sides. Repeated wipes seems to get it reasonably cleaned off. Lay out polyethylene sheet with ink side down and spread first layer of BID on it to correct dimensions. Mix 6 strokes epoxy and start to wet out. Seems to start getting thick quite quickly so get it out of the cup as fast as possible by pouring lines along the length of the BID rather than using the brush. Wet out and lay on first 2 hinge pieces. Wet them out with brush and lay on second hinge layers. They also wet out pretty well without any further epoxy. Unroll second full-length layer, adjusting width as unrolled and it finishes up just over the length needed. Stipple with brush to wet out then lay on another piece of polyethylene and squeegee through that, which is very successful. Almost complete wetting-out achieved, still without adding epoxy. Mix 2 strokes epoxy, remove top polyethylene sheet and touch up a few dryish spots. Not enough left for LE glass surfaces, so mix up another 2 strokes and paint onto those areas. LIft layup on its plastic sheet onto the ali angle and position with fold line on top edge and 40mm portion towards me. Lift aileron over it, LE down, and position carefully before lowering. Seems to go quite well into vee with no signs of distress. Lift complete angle and aileron assembly and replace on foam blocks with LE uppermost. Remove ali angle. Positioning looks good and very even along length, especially compared to starboard one. Push down into vee then slowly peel off plastic sheet, which comes off without disturbing glass. Encourage BID down into bottom of vee with edge of plastic card and sqeegee it onto LE surface, getting rid of a lot of large bubbles underneath. Insert peel-ply tape into vee and press down with plastic card, stretching lengthwise to prevent wrinkles. Add second peel-ply tape on LE undersurface, just overlapping first and going around LE radius, and squeegee on. Add third and fourth peel-ply tapes in vee, stretching and bedding down each in turn. Add 2 layers of green peel-ply in vee at each hinge area and bed down. Spread a little epoxy along LE radius to help hold peel-ply down. Scissor trim ends (should have done that before peel-plying) and a couple of places along flange where BID is a bit long. Erect tent and leave to cure. 433.6
8 Turn off heat. Order some components for 12-24v converter from Maplin. Remove curing tent and start to remove peel-ply from hinge flange of port aileron. Can get some pieces off without too much effort, but others are very difficult. 433.9
9 Continue trying to remove peel-ply from port aileron hinge flange. Re-sharpen pointy tool made from old screwdriver and find it is some help, but in places the peel-ply is in a narrow slot beyond the main angle of the vee and won't come out without tearing. Left with a small strip of several layers of peel-ply along central area and particularly at the outboard hinge location. The hinge will barely go in far enough, so need to remove more. After trying sandpaper wrapped around various thin things such as PCBs, find I can get good results by holding a piece of thin Perma-Grit against a piece of PCB to fill the slot. However, this needs more hands than I have available. Decide to make better clamping arrangements for the aileron, which should also come in useful later for other sanding jobs. Take one of the lengths of 3mm aluminium angle and cut about 248mm off the end of another so the combined length when butted together reaches beyond the ends of the table. Think about how to make the joint; simplest is a splint, but I want the fixings to be flush with the outer faces of the angle so as to avoid potential damage to the composite parts. Countersunk pop-rivets seem most attractive, but I don't have any in stock (apart from the expensive ones in the kit!). 436.5
10 Find I can get 3.2mm countersunk-head pop-rivets from GR Fasteners in Stonehouse, so drive down and collect some, and a few other items that catch my eye while I'm there. Mark out and cut off another piece of ali angle for a splint, and 2 more to extend and splint a second length. Scribe for pop-rivet positions (32 per splint) and centre-pop. Recive e-mail from Tim Houlihan about parts needed for Tony K's differential-pressure fuel gauge. He can get some from Maplin but the sensor and some other bits will have to come from RS. 437.3
11 Drill, deburr and countersink holes in first set of ali angle pieces. Need to support end of long pieces on ladder. Fit countersunk rivets, but after doing several realise that the countersinks are too deep and that the heads are not actually bedding into the countersinks because the nose of the rivet pliers is larger than the diameter of the rivet heads and allowing the heads to pull away rom the workpiece while setting. Find a couple of small washers that can be put on rivet stems to keep them fully home while popping. Drill out ones installed so far (noting that most are quite loose) and re-do using washers; much better looking. Decide I need just the end sets of rivets installed, so that is only 16 rivets per splint. Drill second set, paying more attention to getting countersink depth correct. Still use washer when setting rivets just to be sure. Clamp port aileron TE under ali angle with trigger clamps each end of table. Fairly satisfactory, but angle tends to bow in 45-degree plane. Maybe it would have been better to form a u-channel - but that would have been less simple to make strong joints in all faces. Sanding bottom of vee much easier with workpiece held. Use thin PCB and thin Perma-Grit sheet back-to-back giving good results. Find I can scrape off much of the residual peel-ply from the bottom sides of the vee with the bent end of the pointy tool. After several cycles of sanding and scraping, the outboard hinge area is much cleaner and the hinge goes down with the knuckle about flush with the flange. Get starboard aileron out again to see if the techniques learned can be applied there too. 440.7
13 Spend time working on both ailerons to remove almost all peel-ply from full length of hinge vees. Alternate work with Perma-Grit backed up with thin piece of PCB, and pointy tool (now with hooked end) gives pretty satisfactory results in the end. 442.7
14 Finalise design of jig for aileron drive bolt positioning. Mark out a piece of 12mm aluminium plate with centre for 1/4" hole, positioned 35mm in, at a slight angle from one edge, where a piece of ali angle will be fixed to locate on the hinge flange edges. Scribe radius of 45mm on the hole centre for LE position. Bandsaw curve, file and linish to finish. Drill hole out to 1/4" in stages. Bandsaw slot for angle and enlarge to fit with swiss file. Drill 3.4mm hole and tap M4 for angle fixing screw. Looks like it should work OK. Dig foam out of root closeout and remove peel-plyand polyethylene sheet used to separate closeout foam. Leaves a rather shiny surface of 5-min epoxy, but pretty flat and tidy. Tiny ends of peel-ply left embedded as it had been applied rather close to size. The unexpected joggle on the underside, and the deepening of the hinge vee have trapped a few fibres at those points. Carve fillet out around LE for flox corner. Start to clean out tip closeout. Pass Tony K fuel gauge RS order list to Tim for approval. 445.9
15 Order fuel gauge stuff for Tim & myself from RS, along with Raychem 44 wire in 2 gauges, and contact inserts for connector shells bought from Brian Oke. RS have just stopped stocking the 1000uH inductors for 12-24V converter so need to look elsewhere. Finish scraping out the port aileron tip closeout area and remove polyethylene sheet. Mark out 6 pieces BID 300mm x 100mm and 4 pieces 250mm x 100mm for aileron root and tip closeouts respectively. Cut 3 pieces 300x100 and store in plastic bag. Dig out recess for head of AN4-10A bolt in root face and realise that in its final position the end of it will not reach the jig as it finishes up slightly below the root flange level. Options are to make an extension for the bolt (but no 1/4" x 28 UNF tap in stock) or enlarge the hole in the jig to take a 1/4" bore tube (but can't find anything like that in stock either - might have to make it from solid). Buck & Hickman or Moorhouse Fasteners will probably have the tap, if not in stock, at least next day. B&Q in Gloucester had assorted metal, I think including tubes, but don't remember seeing a similar display at Cheltenham B&Q. 447.6
16 RS order arrives but some QM inserts missing and one damaged, so spend time sorting that out with RS & sending back the damaged parts. Get 1/4" x 28 UNF taps from Moorhouse Fasteners and selection of tube from B&Q. Aluminium 8mm OD x 1mm wall seems ideal for adding to the aileron drive bolt alignment jig. Remove ali angle from jig and drill out hole to 7.9mm. Ream to 8mm. Cut off 50mm length of ali tube and it is a press fit in reamed hole. Drill out to 1/4" in lathe and face off ends. Drill clearance hole in 19mm faced chipboard and press tube into jig using vice, leaving about 19mm protruding each side of plate. Re-fit ali angle and find it is not quite square to tube in one plane (fortunately hole & tube seem to be square to machined end of plate). Remove angle and open out slot slightly with swiss file. Re-assemble with Araldite, set on vee-block to keep tube and angle aligned while curing. Clear up table for layup. Decide to do layup with aileron near vertical, leaning on stool with bottom end restrained from sliding away by heavy weight (router box). Check if it will fit inside curing tent if propped alongside table, but just a bit too high for that. Rather than tilt it into the tent enough to fit (that might mean upper face of layup could be inclined to fall away from flange) upturn other stool on layup table to prop tent up enough to clear end of aileron. Put sheet of blockboard on top of upturned feet to protect tent from puncture and keep it off layup. Draw up aileron root BID shape on polyethylene sheet and mark bolt position. 449.5
17 Check fit of XA2 plate and AN4-10A bolt in port aileron root with modified alignment jig. File down one corner of XA2 to clear flange. Degrease metal parts in acetone and abrade areas to be embedded with 80-grit paper. Think about using aluminium tube for protecting bolt shaft from epoxy, but realise after cutting off a piece and drilling it out that it would likely drag epoxy up the bolt as it was removed, so revert to method in manual. Assemble bolt to XA2 and mask off shaft and threads with 2 pieces of masking tape (one around and one over end), leaving folded ends for easy removal. Coat spacer tube, AN washer & nut with wax (not grease as in manual, because that seems a bit too mobile). Leave on upturned mixing cup for easy access, and degrease hands again. Mix 3 strokes epoxy and 3 doses flox. Fill flox corner at LE. Lots of flox left over. Distribute it around mixing cup so less likely to go off. Spread 2 layers of BID over XA2 assembly on plasitc sheet (to save time, should have done that before starting to mix any epoxy). Mix 3 strokes epoxy and paint flanges and root face (no need for micro slurry as face well coated with 5-min epoxy). Spread generous amounts of epoxy on BID over XA2 and leave to soak in. Lay in first layer of BID on root and wet out. Scissor trim. Spread epoxy on other 2 layers of BID to cover dry patches. Cut small hole in another sheet of plastic and lay it over XA2 BID layers. Squeegee through plastic - not quite as successful as with BID for hinge vee because of uneven surface, but still worthwhile. Need to enlarge hole around bolt slightly to fit EURO01 washer. Wipe epoxy off masking tape as much as possible, then carefully peel off. Seems completely successful in avoiding getting any epoxy on bolt shaft. Apply waxed spacer, washer & nut and tighten only with fingers until resin starts to ooze out under edges of EURO01 washer. To make applying flox around XA2 easier, drill clearance hole in large piece of blue foam and flop layup onto it with nut end of bolt down hole. Peel off bottom layer of plastic and butter flox all around XA2 and in lightening hole. Transfer to aileron root and with considerable difficulty persuade it into position. Won't go with plastic still on reverse and once that's removed it loses all dimensional stability. Have to use mixing stick to hold first layer in position as this lot gets pushed down past it. At the LE, BID seems to be going well into the root and into flox corner at bit. Difficult to avoid because it needs to be pushed down firmly in front of XA2 although there's not much flat area of the root left to push against. Apply green peel-ply in many small strips to cope with complex shapes. Add several layers along lower corner where epoxy is pooling a bit. Erect curing tent and set up stool upside-down with piece of blockboard over feet. Slide aileron in carefully to avoid hitting layup on anything. Secure that side of tent down with masking tape as otherwise a lot of heat would escape there. Leave to cure. Looks OK by bedtime. Think it might be better to do the whole aileron root layup on a slightly undesize male mould and drop that into the closeout area. 452.5
18 Turn off heat in curing tent. Take down tent, unscrew nut from port aileron drive bolt and remove washer. Sleeve does not want to come off, but is persuaded with pliers. A thin film of epoxy has wicked up a bit around the bolt shaft. It flakes off cleanly & easily. Remove peel-ply from root closeout. Most comes off OK, but it definitely needed several layers at the low corner to soak up excess resin. Trim edges of layup with padsaw and sand down to the skin line. The bolt is actually protruding more beyond the flanges than it was when I offered up the XA2 assembly dry. I thought I'd pressed it home quite firmly, and there doesn't seem to be any obvious void; must be just the total thickness of the first layer of BID and the flox. Remove the foam from the starboard aileron root closeout and peel out the polyethylene film used as release for the 5-minute epoxy. Remove the peel-ply from the flanges. Start to carve scrap foam into a male plug for the recess so I can do the layup on it in the reverse order and transfer it to the root recess more easily. 453.7
20 Outstanding contact inserts from RS arrive. Finish carving up male plug for starboard aileron root recess and sand to final shape, leaving space all around for thickness of layup. Cut out recess on face for XA2, and drill clearance hole for bolt, washer and nut. Re-wax nut, washer and spacer tube. Reply to Mike Gregory's e-mail about wire types asking where I can buy the "airframe" grade as opposed to the "equipment" grade that RS supplied. It seems that purchase was something of a waste as it's only suitable for inside equipment or for well-made looms behind the pnel. 454.4
21 Cover male plug with parcel tape to avoid excess soaking-in of resin, and allow easy release. Carve out flox corner at starboard aileron root LE. Mark up 2 pieces of polyethylene sheet for doing layup on and squeegeeing out, and cut EURO01 washer clearance hole in second sheet. Cut out 3 already marked-out pieces of 300x100mm BID. File edges off XA2 and scuff sand; also scuff sand AN4-10A bolt head and EURO01 washer. Degrease all three in acetone. After air-drying, assemble bolt and XA2 and mask off bolt shaft with 2 pieces of masking tape, folding back ends to allow easy removal. Open weave of 2 BID pieces to allow bolt through and place on marked-out polyethylene sheet. Mix 3 strokes epoxy & 3 doses flox (forgot it was too much last time - 2 would have been more than enough) and butter into LE corner & bolt-head recess. Mix 3 strokes epoxy and wet out 2 layers of BID covering XA2. Once fully wetted (and realise I don't need the other plastic sheet with the hole in it) invert onto male mould and persuade BID to drape smoothly round ends. Butter on flox around XA2 and bolt head and drape on last layer of BID. Wet out thoroughly then offer up to root. Goes in quite easily. Peel back edges of BID from mould and separate with mixing stick to allow release. Mould comes out with hardly any disturbance to layup. Spend some time going around inner corner checking for and removing bubbles. Check position of bolt with jig on flange - almost perfect right away, but needs slight movement aft. Re-check for bubbles especially around XA2. Apply lots of peel-ply in strips, with extra layers at low corner. Erect curing tent with inverted stool as before and slide aileron into vertical position. Tape down gaps and leave to cure. 457.7
22 Turn off heat in curing tent. Phone Rayfast for wire catalogue as advised in e-mail from Mike Gregory. At last manage to contact the UK rep for Pulse Engineering and get the name of a distributor for the inductor needed for the 12-24V converter. Phone Focus EDL and they have 85 in stock at £1.75 each but carriage is about £6 so decide to order 10, (I can re-sell them later to others making the same unit). Focus need a written order but will accept an e-mail for that, so compose a suitable one. Take down and remove peel-ply from starboard aileron root. Nut on bolt comes off easily, but spacer tube has again got some epoxy wicked up inside and needs firm grip with pliers to remove. Trim off layup with padsaw and sand down flush. Dig out foam on tip closeout, remove polyethylene release sheet and remove peel-ply. 458.8
23 Focus phone back for card number. Sand clean the tip flanges of both ailerons in the small areas of the LE vee where there was no peel-ply. Decide they could both be cured together if a piece of foam was taped between them to prevent layups touching. File accumulated epoxy samples. Cut some more strips of green peel-ply. Rinse out brushes that have been in vinegar and latterly acetone and leave to air-dry in the draught of the fan heater. 459.9
24 IS Rayfast wire etc catalogue arrives. Will need to cross-reference with Raychem PDF spec. Scuff-sand the insides of both aileron tip closeout flanges. Cut 4 ready-marked pieces of BID 250x100mm. No need for micro-slurry as foam faces already coated with 5-min epoxy. Mix 4 strokes epoxy (which turns out to be far too much) and paint all insides of tip closeouts with it. Place first layers in each and wet out. Place second layers and wet out quickly as don't want epoxy in cup to exotherm. Pour excess epoxy onto flat plastic lid to keep cool. stipple into corners and chase out bubbles. Apply peel-ply and pretty much use up all I'd pre-cut. Stick ailerons together with masking tape and piece of scrap foam between them, near tip end. Erect curing tent and inverted stool and carefully slide ailerons into position beside the stool. Tape in place with masking tape and tape down that side of tent. Leave to cure about 16:15 - seems amazing to finish a layup in daylight! 461.8
25 Turn off heat and take down curing tent. Separate ailerons and remove peelply. Trim closeout edges. Mark out hinge holes & rebates on both aileron flanges. Make outboard and start on inboard hinge rebates on starboard aileron. 465.3
27 Tim here in afternoon to work on fuel gauge stuff. He buys most of remaining stuff from Maplin and we work out a possible rough layout for chips on veroboard. Finish starboard aileron root hinge rebate and extend flush to root, to leave room for unbent hinge pin. Cut hinge pins to length and deburr ends. Make pin lineup jig from piece of aluminium bar. Taper one end and drill 2.3mm for hinge pin. Offer up to both hinges in situ and check drive bolt location. Starboard one slightly closer than port, so chamfer rear edge of hinge leaf to allow it to sit properly. Make 1/4" hole and it seems to be in about the right place for both ailerons. Set up polyethylene sheet at end of table and spray all hinge leaves with last of zinc chromate primer, finishing 1st aerosol can. 467.4
28 Stainless tube for outrigger mod arrives from Nigel. Go over to Kemble and recover fuselage dolly from Tim. Shift stuff around a bit in trailer to make room for it. Clamp starboard aileron hinges to straight-edge, checking for lineup by boresighting. Lightly oil hinge pins and knuckle bores. Insert hinge pins in hinges and safety both ends of outboard one, but only outboard end of root one, leaving root end straight for checking position with jig. Will need to reduce OD of hinge bending tool to get at root end once fitted. Jam hinge leaves in position against flange using hardwood wedges. Drill rivet holes 3.2mm and open to 3.3mm. Hard to prevent breakthrough into LE face on rear holes, but after trying rivets for size, find that all holes have to be continued into LE face anyway to allow rivets to go home. Countersink holes with 10mm drill bit. Mask hinge knuckles with parcel tape to reduce possibility of flox contamination. 469.2
29 Scuff-sand starboard aileron hinge flange & hinges. Mix 2 strokes epoxy with 2.5 doses flox. Butter onto hinges and flange. Jam into position with mixing sticks, checking hinge-wire position with alignment tool. Dip rivets in Duralac and lightly pull them. Add some tiny drops of oil to hinge knuckles to help stop epoxy getting in. 470.3
30 Turn off curing tent heat. Hinges seem fairly stiff. While collecting LaserWriter from Gerry Holland, he offers (free) some spare Nyvin 4AWG wire for battery cables, which I accept. Pop rivets in starboard aileron hinges. Unclamp straightedge, peel off parcel tape and scrape off some resin that has wicked into hinge knuckle area. Apply some small drops of oil to hinge knuckles and they start to free up slightly. 470.8
31 Work on starboard aileron hinges more to free them up. Scrape resin out from between moving knuckles and edge of flange, and between knuckles, with scalpel. Outboard one almost acceptable, but inboard one still quite stiff. Turn down end of hinge wire bending tool to clear root flange and bend that hinge wire. Use bending tool to rotate the hinge wire and it frees up a little more. The root hinge is now free to move very slightly inboard and outboard, so there can be no friction between the hinge knuckles; and the scalpel slides along all the slots between the moving knuckle and the flange, so there can be no friction there. Remaining problem must be resin that has got in around the hinge wire by capillary action. Decide to use wax for the next set of hinges as that should be less easily displaced by resin wicking in than the oil. 472.3

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